References: Subsidies for Private Motor Vehicle Use


Transportation Cost Estimates: A summary of the costs to users and communities of various travel modes - 2022
Todd Litman at the Victoria Transport Policy Institute has done detailed research for decades on the true costs of motor vehicle use to the users and to the community that subsidizes the use of private motor vehicles.

US Office of Technology Assessment: Saving Energy in US Transportation - 1994
This was the last time the US Congressional Office of Technology Assessment calculated the true costs and subsidies for private motor vehicle use in the US. A very comprehensive report.

Still Not Getting Energy Prices Right: A Global and Country Update of Fossil Fuel Subsidies - International Monetary Fund - 2021
This paper shows how "inefficient" fossil fuel pricing totals about $6 trillion globally per year in subsidies. And how ending these subsidies alone could stop the Climate Crisis.

America's Autos on Welfare - 2010
This Sierra Club page is a brief survey of eight different studies documenting subsidies for private motor vehicle use. These subsidies total hundreds of billions of dollars a year, equivalent to $10-20 per gallon of fuel.

Whose Roads? Defining Bicyclists’ and Pedestrians’ Right to Use Public Roadways - 2021
This research paper from the Victoria Transport Policy Institute shows how bicyclists and pedestrians pay more per mile travelled than motorists do. This is due to the source of funding for roads which comes from everyone, whether or not they drive.

Who Pays for Roads? How the "Users Pay" Myth Gets in the Way of Solving America’s Transportation Problems - 2015
This research paper from the US Public Interest Research Group shows how bicyclists and pedestrians pay more per mile travelled than motorists do. This is due to the source of funding for roads which comes from everyone, whether or not they drive.

Packing Pavement - by Jim Beamguard of the Tampa Tribune - 1999
The biggest subsidy for private motor vehicle use is all of the public land devoted to cars.
Cars consume enormous amounts of space and radically change the landscape.
This graphic representation of land use impacts of different transportation modes speaks for itself.
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